The Taber Abraser tests a specimen mounted on a rotating turntable, which is subjected to the wearing action of two abrasive wheels applied at a specific pressure. The wheels are driven by the rotating specimen about a horizontal axis displaced tangentially from the vertical axis of the specimen.
Rub-wear action is produced by the sliding-rotation of the two abrading wheels against the specimen. One abrading wheel rubs the specimen outward toward the periphery and the other, inward toward the centre. The resulting abrasion marks form a pattern of crossed arcs over an area approximately 30 square centimetres.
The wheels traverse a complete circle on the specimen surface, which reveals abrasion resistance at all angles relative to the weave or grain of the material.